Tag Archives: JCR

History of US Immigration

Borders
A History of Border Security, Illegal and legal immigration

Overview

Regulating the flow of immigrants into the United States has a long, and often tawdry past.

Once regulated, entry then becomes “legal” or “illegal”. And “legal” entry is now generally highly restricted, on a temporary or permanent basis to three different routes: employment, family reunification, or humanitarian protection. All other entry: “illegal”.

Once regulated, borders then become “secure” or “insecure”. Because of trade, borders needed to be highly efficient for goods, and highly “secure” for people. This distinction, between the flow of goods and the flow of people, was an almost unenforceable dilemma, where billions have been expended to do …. the best we can.

Who should regulate? The Supreme Court settled that issue in 1875, opining that this was the role of the Federal Government. Up until then, it was a state responsibility.

How should it regulate? Congress decided that racial quotas were the answer in 1917. Before that time, they actually banned Asian immigration in 1875. The essential idea was to restrict immigration by race to a % of the race’s population in the US (2% of that population was frequently used, noting that 2% of nothing is nothing). The notion of racial quotas was maintained until 1965!

Would there be any exceptions to racial quotas?

Yes, for refugees and asylum-seekers. Congress responded to American sympathies for those fleeing communism and those feeing persecution. Recognizing “refugees” added significant new complexity.

Yes, for spouses and children of American citizens.

Yes, for those born in the Western Hemisphere.

Once regulated, politicians could rail against immigrants, but they rarely provided the funds to enforce the border laws. We severely curtailed legal immigration, and illegal immigration was the easily anticipated result. In 1952, Congress specified that legal immigration be limited to 175,455 per year!

Also easily anticipated, “illegals” brought massive issues for schools, health care, housing, etc. As the number of “illegals” grew, so grew the pressure to do something, anything, to reduce the pressure. Congress has been forced to act, as they did in 1986 when they granted amnesty to approximately 3 million illegals!

So the history of immigration in the United States includes major shifts in policy in 1875 (Supreme Court rules), 1891 (Federal bureaucracy formed), 1924 (racial quotas put in place), 1986 (racial quotas replaced and amnesty granted).

“Illegals” are out of control. Estimates of illegals are 3 million illegals in 1986, 7 million in 2001, and 12 million in 2017. As a % of U.S. population, “foreign-born” dropped from 14.7% in 1910 to 4.7% in 1970, and has been rising ever since. In 2013, there were 13.1% of the population who were foreign born (CREDIT:PEW).

Discussion
Immigration became a full-fledged subject for the nation in 1875, when the Supreme Court ruled that it was a Federal responsibility. Shortly thereafter, Congress stepped up and began excluding people – literally making it “illegal” for them to enter the United States. They banned Asians in 1875 and Chinese in 1882 (the “Asian Exclusion Act” and the “Chinese Exclusion Act” set the stage for all restrictions on immigration that would follow.

In 1891, the Federal Government took a big step: they created a bureaucracy to execute the laws. The Immigration Act of 1891 established a Commissioner of Immigration in the Treasury Department. With the two exceptions noted above, states regulated immigration before 1890.

Before then, this “nation of immigrants” actually had an immigration hiatus from 1790 to 1815, when “foreign-born” reached a low. Immigration as we now know it began with some force in 1830, when “foreign-born reached 9.7% of the population. By 1850, census estimates place immigrants at 1.7 million people, and “foreign-born” at 2.2 million. Between 1870 and 1910, foreign born hovered between 13% and 15% of population. It then started to dip, moving to 4.7% in 1970. It has been climbing since, reaching 13.1% in 2013.

Since then, waves of immigration brought the country waves of immigrants:

Between 1850 and 1930, 25 million Europeans immigrated. Italians, Greeks, Hungarians, Poles, and others speaking Slavic languages made up the bulk of this migration. But among them were 5 million Germans, 3.5 million British, and 4.5 million Irish. 2.5 to 4 million Jews were among them.

The twentieth century began with debates about immigration, and we have been debating the subject ever since.

In 1907, Congress created The Dillingham Commission to investigate the effects of immigration on the country. They wrote forty volumes on the subject.

In 1917, Congress changed the nation’s basic policy about immigration. We began setting “quotas” and limiting access based on literacy. The first such law was a literacy requirement in 1917.

In 1921, Congress adopted the Emergency Quota Act, set quotas. The National Origins Formula assigned quotas based on national origins. This complex legislation gave preference to immigrants from Central, Northern and Western Europe, severely limiting the numbers from Russia and Southern Europe, and declared all potential immigrants from Asia unworthy of entry into the United States (to our shame, this law made it virtually impossible for Jews fleeing Germany after 1934 to immigrate to the United States).

In 1924 , Congress adopted The Immigration Act of 1924. It set quotas for European immigrants so that no more than 2% of the 1890 immigrant stocks were allowed into America.

Interestingly, no quotas were set for people born in the Western Hemisphere.

This era, and its legislative framework, lasted until 1965. During this period, Congress recognized the notion of a “refugee” seeking “amnesty”. Jewish Holocaust survivors after the war, those fleeing Communist rule in Central Europe and Russia, Hungarians seeking refuge after their failed uprising in 1956, and Cubans after the 1960 revolution, and others moved the conscience of the nation.

In 1965, Congress adopted the Hart-Celler Act. It was a by-product of the civil rights revolution and a jewel in the crown of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs. It abolished the racially based quota system.The law replaced these quotas with new preferential categories. It gave particular preference to immigrants with U.S. relatives and job skills deemed critical.

In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was adopted. It created, for the first time, penalties for employers who hired illegal immigrants. IRCA, also granted amnesty to workers in the country illegally. In practice, amnesty was granted for about 3,000,000 illegal immigrants. Most were from Mexico. Legal Mexican immigrant family numbers were 2,198,000 in 1980, 4,289,000 in 1990 (includes IRCA), and 7,841,000 in 2000.

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_immigration_to_the_United_States

https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2017/08/06/trump-history-of-american-immigration-215464

https://americanimmigrationcouncil.org/research/why-don’t-they-just-get-line

How U.S. immigration laws and rules have changed through history

http://assets.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/reports/39.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407978/

On Writing Well

On Writing Well

CREDIT:
Do I Make Myself Clear?
Harold Evans

(Harold Evens was the long-time editor of the London Times. Before that, he served 14 years as Editor of the Sunday Times.)

The goal of writing is “to get the right words in the right order”.

Harold calls a bad paragraph “a monster, a boa constrictor of a paragraph”.

“Muddle is likely when you write long opening phrase or clause before unveiling the ideas in the main clause”. The long thought before …. he called “predatory” because it steals the main thought. Predatory clauses up front are …. BAD.

Winston Churchill said of Ramsey MacDonald “the gift of compressing the largest number of words into the smallest amount of thought.”

A “Delayed Drop” – holding the reader in suspense, so they are impelled to read on (to find out what happened”).

Use words that are mostly short, concrete and not abstract,

A sentence forms a complex thought.

We won’t communicate anything if the sentences are so boring readers switch off.

Complex sentences are not doomed to be readable.

NOTE: Readability formulas can be found at www.readabilityformulas.com and www.readability-score.com

Lucius Sloan (1847-1933) studied sentence construction. He found that sentence word counts had been reduced over time, from 50 in pre-Elizabethan times, to 29 in Victorian times, to 23 in early 20th century. He documented a “decrease in predication”. Two predications in a sentence became the norm (down from 5).

William DuBay is the authority on readability. He judges the Dale-Chall index “the most reliable of the readability formulas”.

IN 1931, William Gray and Bernice Leary identified 228 elements that affected readability. They boiled it down to five. They are either about sentence structure or vocabulary.

Rudolf Flesch: The Art of Readable Writing

Flesh Reading Ease Index: Average length of sentences and syllables per hundred words. He urged 18 words per sentence.

Robert Gunning: The Fog Index. Copy with a fog index of 13 or more runs the danger of being ignored or misunderstood.

“Basic” vocabulary is 3,000 easy words.

Lucy Kellaway “Golden Flannel” sentences.

Blundy: averages 15 words per sentence. No sentences longer than 32 words. Average number of syllables is 2.

Adjectives not susceptible to modifiers are: certain, complete, devoid, empty, entire, essential, everlasting, excellent, external, fatal, final, fundamental, harmless, ideal, immaculate, immortal, impossible, incessant, indestructible, infinite, invaluable, main, omnipotent, perfect, principal, pure, round, simultaneous, square, ultimate, unanimous, unendurable, unique, unspeakable, untouchable, whole, worthless.

The hidden arithmetic of verbosity.

The sentence clinic.

“Try being a musician in prose. The more you experiment, the more you will appreciate the subtleties of rhythm in good writing – and bad. …. Vary sentence structure. Vary sentence style.”

Use alliteration: “none of us can be bystanders to bigotry”.

A “loose sentence”: where there is at least one full sentence before the stop.

“Periodic sentence” builds to a climax. It is a sentence of excitement and surprise.

“the Queen, my lord, is dead.”

The “balanced sentence”: is a work of deliberate symmetry.

Every man had a right to utter what he thinks is the truth, and every other man has a right to knock him down for it.

Put people first

the circumlocutory preposition (in the field of, in connection with etc)
the prepositional verb: consult (with), check (up on)
pedantry (insisting incorrectly that no sentence can end with preposition)

Drew Elementary School and Edison

I visited the Drew Charter School on April 1, 2016, in the inspiring East Lake Community of Atlanta. East Lake has been wildly successful. The community itself has been a complete transformation, but – almost as importantly – its success has anchored the exciting turnarounds underway in surrounding Kirkwood, and Oakhurst in Decatur. The entire area south of Decatur and north of I-20 is booming – in large part thanks to East Lake and Tom and Anne Cousins.

It was a very proud moment for me – since Edison was elected as the operator of the school in the early year (I was Edison’s first Chief Operating Officer). The Edison model, to grow the school a grade at a time, is now almost fully realized at Drew: they have 11 grades and will open a twelfth grade next year!

And what a grand success it has been. Almost everyone involved credits the success of the school as being an essential component of Tom Cousin’s East Lake experiment. Of course Mr Cousins and his wife Anne, as well as Lillian and Greg Giornelli, deserve massive credit for their incredible multi-year commitment to this project. It was their commitment that made it all possible, including Drew.

Drew opened with a $17.5 million facility. What I saw was an even greater commitment – the junior/senior high school!

And a bit of history below:

Note this article from the ATL Business Chronicle was written in September, 1999. I joined The Edison Project as the Chief Operating Officer in January, 1996, and left Edison in September, 1999 – just as Drew was opening!

I took Edison through the first four operating years. The contracting and planning and budgeting was under my watch, but I never stayed to see it open (sadly).

So Drew was a fifth year Edison School (first year, 1995-1996, we had 4 schools; second year, 1996-1997, 12; third year, 1997-1998, 25; fourth, 1998-1999 51; fifth, 1999-2000 77. Note that Drew opened in temporary facilities for the 1999-2000 school year.

Note Shirley Franklin was Chair of the Charter School at the time.

From:
ATL Business Chronicle Article

Sep 6, 1999, 12:00am EDT Updated Sep 6, 1999, 12:00am

The Charles R. Drew Charter School has grabbed the attention of members of the East Lake community. Organizers hope it can keep that attention once it is open.

“If you look across the country in inner cities … people are very excited about public education,” said Shirley Franklin, chair of the East Lake Academy Charter School Board. “There’s a renewed interest in remodeling how public education operates.”

The state board of education unanimously approved the new charter school in August.

But work on the school is far from complete.

The school is slated to open next August in temporary quarters, first serving kindergarten through fifth-graders.

The former Drew Elementary School, which was closed a few years ago due to low enrollment, will be rebuilt. It is scheduled to open in its permanent location in August 2001.

The school will add one grade level per year, up to eighth grade in 2003.

The school likely will have an enrollment of about 850 in the $17.5 million facility.

Meeting multiple needs
A child development center serving community children up to the age of four is slated to be a part of the Drew Charter School. The charter school also will have an attached YMCA.

The YMCA “was something we’d been working [on] with Atlanta Public Schools and the YMCA since Day One. All three parties [see] the YMCA as a critical part of the redevelopment of the East Lake community,” said Greg Giornelli, executive director of the nonprofit East Lake Community Foundation, an effort driven by Atlanta developer Tom Cousins.

There are some immediate tasks to tackle in order to keep those redevelopment efforts on track.

The real estate closing on the Drew Elementary School property will take place in a few weeks, Giornelli said.
Topping the priority list for the charter school’s board meeting in September is discussion of a temporary site for the school and the status of the contract with The Edison Project, the nation’s largest education-management company, which will run the school for the charter foundation.

Rebuilding a community
The Drew School is just one example of the rebirth in East Lake and East Atlanta.

Cousins has been at work through his foundation, along with partners such as the Atlanta Housing Authority, to build a mixed-income housing development — the Villages of East Lake.

Besides being managed by The Edison Project and having its charter school board, the Drew School will be different in that there will be site-based decision-making, Giornelli said. There also will be an extended school day and year.
But to eradicate any misperceptions about the charter school’s identity — such as that it is some sort of private school — Giornelli stresses the partnership with Atlanta Public Schools.

“It never can be anything but an Atlanta public school. It is a unique school,” he said. “I don’t want to lose sight of the fact that this is a public school, and it’s very much a partnership effort. We are 100 percent accountable to the Atlanta Board of Education.”

The Atlanta Board of Education will pay $6,070 per student for the school’s first year. The expenditure will cover most of the school’s operating costs, except for transportation services and nutrition programs.

Drawing in residents
Atlanta school board member Mike Holiman, who represents District 3, which includes East Lake, hopes Drew’s set-up leads parents to become partners in the school’s success.
“I’ve seen it over and over again — when parents come in, elbow their way through the halls and take over, so to speak, things start happening,” Holiman said.
He said that he believes parents will be involved.
“I was at the initial public meeting when we started talking about the charter [last fall], and I think there were 70 or 80 people there at that first meeting,” he said.
“I can tell you, they are very interested in Drew being something special,” he added.

Developing a curriculum
The Edison Project was hired to initiate the education program, along with technology and management systems at the Drew School.

The Drew School’s curriculum will have an intensive focus on reading and math, with 90 minutes of language arts daily and 60 minutes of math instruction daily.

Franklin of the East Lake Academy Charter School Board gives high marks to the Edison-managed schools she has visited.

“I was impressed with all the people involved — the student body, parents, faculty — their focus on student performance,” Franklin said.

Edison manages schools in a number of places, including California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, North Carolina, Texas and Washington, D.C.

By this fall, there will be 77 schools under its management.

Changing the school calendar
Under current plans, the school day at the new Drew School will be one to two hours longer than it is at other public schools.

The first school year will be 185 days. There will be a minimum of 200 days in each subsequent school year.
With initiatives such as quarterly meetings between teachers and parents, a Parent Advisory Committee and a mentoring program, parental involvement will be heavily stressed.

Parental involvement
That won’t be a problem if parents voice the same enthusiasm for the school as Pamela Davis, who has lived in East Lake for 12 years and is a charter school board member.
Although her children, who are ages 10, 11, and 12, won’t be attending the school, Davis still is confident about Drew’s effects.

“The grades are supposed to improve,” Davis said. “The charter school is supposed to be … one-on-one.”
Davis isn’t nervous about the many eyes that will be focused on the charter school’s performance.

With the community undergoing a number of recent changes, East Lake has encountered scrutiny before. “We overcame that,” she said.

Of the school and community’s success, she added: “It only works if you make it work.”

Corridors

This idea of corridors has occurred to me over the last few months. I know of no references for the way of thinking that I will try to describe here. I am sure these references exist, but I do not know where they are.

Applications of Corridors
Corridors have application in law, and its sister concept of regulation; in design, and its subset applications of architecture, landscape architecture, interior design, and fine arts, such as drama, art, music, and dance; in policy, and its subset applications of corporate policy, or global, national, regional, and local policy (bodies of legislation and accompanying case law and precedent is a broad variant on this idea); in education, when schools ask students to specify a major, to join a department, or to specialize in a field; and in careers, when individuals define their own professional corridors, e.g. in engineering, software design, medicine, law, business, etc.

The Core Idea of Corridors
The core idea is this: productivity is a function of well-designed corridors. Design a corridor that is too narrow, and productivity is stifled. Design a corridor too wide, and productivity suffers from too many permutations and combinations of possibilities.

If any given project is vague, then the progress of the project managers is limited as they attempt to find a path forward that makes sense. Once found, a clear path forward leads to progress in leaps and bounds. If the path forward is not found, among a myriad of possibilities, then project teams flounder and are frustrated.

Corridors in Law
A law is a corridor hammered out by the legislative body. Designed well, a law specifies the corridor by which activity is “legal”. And conversely, a law specifies which activity is “illegal”. Along with the idea of illegal comes the the sanctions applied to those unfortunate enough to be caught doing something illegal.

Corridors in Regulation: the Sister Concept to Corridors in Law
A regulation reflects the desire of a law-making body to avoid making the law itself too narrow (where the language of the law effectively gets into counter-productive micro-management). It reflects the delegation of authority from the law-making body to an agency. The agency is charged with coming up with “regulations’ that define the tactics of the law. Done well, regulations always remain within the corridors outlined in the law. They reflect the intention of the law, and are an executional element of the law. Done poorly, regulation stray beyond the corridors outlined in the law, and can serve to confuse the public and frustrate the law-makers.

An example of Corridors in Law and Regulation: Social Security
FDR is known for making Social Security the law of the land. The US Congress, in adopting Social Security, effectively defined a corridor for aging in the US. From its adoption forward, older citizens who qualify for Social Security are entitled to a “safety net” of income. Because Congress recognized that this entitlement would require dynamic adjustment over time, it authorized the Social Security Administration to publish regulations that would tactically implement, and to adjust over time, the intentions of the law.

Corridors in Design
Creatives focus. The really great ones define corridors for their work. The corridors are broad enough to be highly motivating to the creative – who yearns for freedom of thought and expression. At the same time, they are narrow enough to allow the creative to be highly productive, by applying and reapplying their creative concepts within a relatively narrow scope.

An example of Corridors in Design: Steve Jobs and Apple
An example is Steve Jobs and Apple – a brilliant example of choosing a corridor for creativity and productivity. Apple defined the personal computer as their corridor – with stunning success. As they achieved preeminence in this field, Apple was able to see a larger corridor, which the world now sees as the ipod, iPad, iPhone, and – now – the iWatch. Are these new consumer appliances different than a “personal computer” – the corridor of the original vision? I would argue that they are not different: they are applications of the personal computer corridor, brilliantly subsuming appliances from other corridors into the corridor of personal computing.

Corridors in Policy
I mentioned that policy is an area where the notion of properly chosen, well-defined corridors can lead to high productivity. Corporate, Global, National, Regional, and Local Policy-Makers must constantly struggle to define corridors within which citizens and institutions within their sphere of influence must operate.

Urban Policy as an Example of Corridors in Policy
Take urban policy as an example. Urban design policies found in comprehensive plans and zoning ordinances. These plans and regulations reflect policies about where a given city wants to grow. How much growth should be in industrial, commercial, and residential ? Where are the geographies slated for each? Where does mixed-use fit? What procedures allow for changes over time?

Corridors in Education
Education is probably the most classical application of the example of a “corridor”. It is impossible to know everything. So educators attempt to guide students in narrowing their field of study. An undergraduate education might well define “liberal arts” or “engineering” as a corridor of study. A graduate program might define “public administration” or “mechanical engineering” as a corridor. Unfortunately, however, there are far too many examples of students getting lost in a corridor as large as “liberal arts”. Out of frustration parents and students alike may well force a narrower corridor. Chosen well, such a narrower corridor, e.g. history, can focus the mind and increase productivity and creativity. At the same time, there are far too many examples of those who define an educational corridor that is too narrow, e.g. automotive mechanics.

Example of Corridors in Education
90%+ of US students follow a corridor path that is well-known. They might, for example, take liberal arts as an undergraduate, and major in a science, social science, language, or fine arts. But US students may well have the sites set on graduate school, and so they stay very broad in undergraduate courses so they do not limit their choices in graduate school. A law or medicine graduate student does well to stay broad in undergraduate classes. The medicine corridor in graduate school would naturally expect more science course. The law corridor in graduate school would be inclined to expect high proficiency in writing and communication and analysis as an undergraduate.

Corridors in Careers
What is my career path? Virtually everyone struggles with this question. It is a corridor question and brings with it the same perils of other corridor choices. Choose a corridor that is too narrow, e.g. cost accounting, and the person runs a real risk that opportunities will rapidly fall outside the chosen corridor. The result will be career confusion, as job choices can be endless, and dead-end job choices are everywhere. At the same time, choose a career corridor that is too broad, e.g. systems design, and the person runs a real risk that no employers trusts that the applicant is qualified for a specific job that is available.

Example of Corridors in Careers
Sales is a reasonably common example of a career corridor filled with endless possibilities, and yet it is very specific in the eyes of an employer. “Show me proof that you can sell”, they might say. And with that proof, they may well not care if they have proof that the person can sell a specific widget or software or product or service.